Malady writeup.jpg
 A rooster walks on top of roots used in traditional healing at BiMwanahija’s clinic

A rooster walks on top of roots used in traditional healing at BiMwanahija’s clinic

Woo_Mganga_1.JPG
 Two women  who carry dark djinn (spirits) have longer consultations with Sheik Abdul Rahman & Sheik Nsoor. In order to push the djinni out, the Sheiks physically hold the women and speak angrily to the djinn inside of them. It is believed that the Sheiks have power bestowed on them by Allah, that gives them special strength that the djinn are afraid of.

Two women who carry dark djinn (spirits) have longer consultations with Sheik Abdul Rahman & Sheik Nsoor. In order to push the djinni out, the Sheiks physically hold the women and speak angrily to the djinn inside of them. It is believed that the Sheiks have power bestowed on them by Allah, that gives them special strength that the djinn are afraid of.

 Handwritten patient files at Kidongo Chekundu Hospital, Zanzibar’s only psychiatric ward. Most families believe that mental illness is caused by djinn (spirit) possession, so rarely bring patients to the hospital until the situation is dire.

Handwritten patient files at Kidongo Chekundu Hospital, Zanzibar’s only psychiatric ward. Most families believe that mental illness is caused by djinn (spirit) possession, so rarely bring patients to the hospital until the situation is dire.

 Women face the wall  to better focus on recitation of dua or prayers at the Shifaa Herbalist Clinic. They came to be to be healed of spiritual and phsyical  illness believed to be caused by djinn (spirits), through the Quran.

Women face the wall to better focus on recitation of dua or prayers at the Shifaa Herbalist Clinic. They came to be to be healed of spiritual and phsyical illness believed to be caused by djinn (spirits), through the Quran.

 Rooftops of  homes in Fuoni village just outside of Zanzibar City, Tanzania

Rooftops of homes in Fuoni village just outside of Zanzibar City, Tanzania

 A woman in the process of being cleansed of a djinn possession (supernatural being that forces people to do it’s will) that is believed to be caused her stomach pains at the Shifaa Herbalist Clinic . The act of the dispossession often leads to screaming, running, and writhing etc as the words from the Quran are like fire to the spirit

A woman in the process of being cleansed of a djinn possession (supernatural being that forces people to do it’s will) that is believed to be caused her stomach pains at the Shifaa Herbalist Clinic . The act of the dispossession often leads to screaming, running, and writhing etc as the words from the Quran are like fire to the spirit

 A  gurney  is rushed across the yard at Mnazi Mmoja public hospital.   At hospitals in Zanzibar everything— including daily meals, washing and transporting to different departments— must be supplied by a patients family and friends  versus hospital staff

A gurney is rushed across the yard at Mnazi Mmoja public hospital.

At hospitals in Zanzibar everything— including daily meals, washing and transporting to different departments— must be supplied by a patients family and friends versus hospital staff

 A sign giving directions at the Mnazi Mmoja Hospital the largest on the island .

A sign giving directions at the Mnazi Mmoja Hospital the largest on the island .

 Fatma Hamad, holds her 2 yr old daughter  Khadija, while examining the child’s x-rays at Mnazi Mmoja government hospital. A month prior the child’s leg became paralyzed after a high fever and convulsions. The hospital recommended an x-ray to check for infection but  ignored any testing for possible nerve damage. Finding nor relief at hospital, Mrs. Hamad  went to a traditional healer who told her the the cause of the paralysis was djinn (spirit) possession.

Fatma Hamad, holds her 2 yr old daughter Khadija, while examining the child’s x-rays at Mnazi Mmoja government hospital. A month prior the child’s leg became paralyzed after a high fever and convulsions. The hospital recommended an x-ray to check for infection but ignored any testing for possible nerve damage. Finding nor relief at hospital, Mrs. Hamad went to a traditional healer who told her the the cause of the paralysis was djinn (spirit) possession.

 Two of the three beds at the maternity ward in Makunduchi Hospital, the third largest government facility on the island

Two of the three beds at the maternity ward in Makunduchi Hospital, the third largest government facility on the island

 New mother, Hidaya Rayabu, 23 (4th from left), sits in the waiting room of Jang’ombe clinic. Her 5 day old daughter, Jamillah , will receive the polio vaccine today, but she must wait for it to warm up as it needs to be administered at room temperature. Vaccines are given free to all children until the age of 2 years old

New mother, Hidaya Rayabu, 23 (4th from left), sits in the waiting room of Jang’ombe clinic. Her 5 day old daughter, Jamillah , will receive the polio vaccine today, but she must wait for it to warm up as it needs to be administered at room temperature. Vaccines are given free to all children until the age of 2 years old

 A mother and her children sit in a field of a farm near Mkokotoni, village .

A mother and her children sit in a field of a farm near Mkokotoni, village .

 Apprentice healer, BiSalama, cuts roots with a machete at BiMwanhija’s clinic. The roots will be doled out to patients  to make teas  to aid in healing

Apprentice healer, BiSalama, cuts roots with a machete at BiMwanhija’s clinic. The roots will be doled out to patients to make teas to aid in healing

 Herbs lay on the floor of a  traditional healers clinic, used to help prevent miscarriage and diarrhea.

Herbs lay on the floor of a traditional healers clinic, used to help prevent miscarriage and diarrhea.

 Patients queue outside the waiting room of traditional healer, BiMwanhija’s clinic. She is considered one of the best on the island and deals mainly with pregnant mothers, children & infertility.

Patients queue outside the waiting room of traditional healer, BiMwanhija’s clinic. She is considered one of the best on the island and deals mainly with pregnant mothers, children & infertility.

 Traditional healer, BiMwanahija, massages infant, Abduli Juma, age 3 months. His mom, Semeni, brought him in because he is very lethargic and can’t hold his own head up. Bimwanahija believes that the baby has a djinn (spirit) possession, though hospital doctors say he has an incurable brain issue .

Traditional healer, BiMwanahija, massages infant, Abduli Juma, age 3 months. His mom, Semeni, brought him in because he is very lethargic and can’t hold his own head up. Bimwanahija believes that the baby has a djinn (spirit) possession, though hospital doctors say he has an incurable brain issue .

 A few weeks after his birth, infant Ahee Bom’s  skin began to darken and peel off in strips. His mother first brought him to the public hospital where they told her the baby’s skin would hopefully heal on its own. A month later, as the condition worsened, she took him to the  traditional healer BiMwanahija,, pictured here.

A few weeks after his birth, infant Ahee Bom’s skin began to darken and peel off in strips. His mother first brought him to the public hospital where they told her the baby’s skin would hopefully heal on its own. A month later, as the condition worsened, she took him to the traditional healer BiMwanahija,, pictured here.

TANZANIAHEALTH/
TANZANIAHEALTH/

Infant, Ahee Bom, lays on the bed he shares with his parents & 2 siblings in their home. After birth, his skin began to significantly darken and peel off in large strips. The traditional healer, BiMwanahija, bathed him with 2 scrubs made from medicinal leaves. Photographed here a few weeks after the process .

TANZANIAHEALTH/
TANZANIAHEALTH/

Salha Abdallah , 43 yrs old, prepares an afternoon snack of bread in her kitchen while her son ,Ali, looks on. She has 7 children in total and her youngest , 1 year old Nurdiin, was born with Down Syndrome. She goes to BiMwanahija’s traditional healing clinic weekly to get the child massages that she believes invigorate him

 1 year old Nurdiin, born with Down Syndrome sits on the couch of his home. He is the youngest child of his 43 year old mother ,Salha Abdallah who has 6 other children. She goes to BiMwanahija’s traditional healing clinic twice weekly to get the baby massages that she believes help invigorate him .

1 year old Nurdiin, born with Down Syndrome sits on the couch of his home. He is the youngest child of his 43 year old mother ,Salha Abdallah who has 6 other children. She goes to BiMwanahija’s traditional healing clinic twice weekly to get the baby massages that she believes help invigorate him .

 Money drawer where payment for services rendered at traditional healer, Bimwanahija’s clinic. She charges based on a sliding scale

Money drawer where payment for services rendered at traditional healer, Bimwanahija’s clinic. She charges based on a sliding scale

 An infant is stretched by traditional healer, BiMwanhija at her clinic, which is meant to promote blood circulation

An infant is stretched by traditional healer, BiMwanhija at her clinic, which is meant to promote blood circulation

 Medicine at traditional healer, BiMwanhija’s clinic usually takes the form of roots or leaves to be boiled into a tea. They are put directly into a patients purses for transport

Medicine at traditional healer, BiMwanhija’s clinic usually takes the form of roots or leaves to be boiled into a tea. They are put directly into a patients purses for transport

 Eight month old, Muhammad Ali with his mother Nadra in the living room of their home. Muhammad suffers from pain resulting from an extreme incarcerated hernia (distended belly button). His mother brought him to a traditional healer to get herbs to try alleviate some of the discomfort, which she says is helping. The hospital diagnosis was surgery , but Mrs. Ali is concerned he will die there if he undergoes the recommended procedure

Eight month old, Muhammad Ali with his mother Nadra in the living room of their home. Muhammad suffers from pain resulting from an extreme incarcerated hernia (distended belly button). His mother brought him to a traditional healer to get herbs to try alleviate some of the discomfort, which she says is helping. The hospital diagnosis was surgery , but Mrs. Ali is concerned he will die there if he undergoes the recommended procedure

 Apprentice traditional healer, BiSalama separates small portions of medicinal leaves to be given to patients at BiMwanahija’s clinic

Apprentice traditional healer, BiSalama separates small portions of medicinal leaves to be given to patients at BiMwanahija’s clinic

 Traditional healer, BiMwanahija, massages pregnant patient, Maryam Juma, 29. This is Maryam’s 5th pregnancy though she has no surviving children (3 miscarriages and 1 was stillborn). Both she and the healer believe the reason for all the failed attempts is because  a troublesome djinn (spirit) has attacked each child in utero.

Traditional healer, BiMwanahija, massages pregnant patient, Maryam Juma, 29. This is Maryam’s 5th pregnancy though she has no surviving children (3 miscarriages and 1 was stillborn). Both she and the healer believe the reason for all the failed attempts is because a troublesome djinn (spirit) has attacked each child in utero.

 Semeni Juma holds her infant son, Abduli, age 3 months in her lap at the waiting room of traditional healer, BiMwanahija. The mother brought him in because he is very lethargic and can’t hold his own head up. BiMwanahija believes that the baby has a djinn (spirit) possession, though hospital doctors say he has an incurable brain issue

Semeni Juma holds her infant son, Abduli, age 3 months in her lap at the waiting room of traditional healer, BiMwanahija. The mother brought him in because he is very lethargic and can’t hold his own head up. BiMwanahija believes that the baby has a djinn (spirit) possession, though hospital doctors say he has an incurable brain issue

 Traditional healer, BiMwanahija, carefully examines 1 month old, Mohammed Salum, who presented with malnutrition as he wasn’t able to  ingest breast milk. The hospital did not  understand the reasons he couldn’t feed so just sent him home. They did give the mother powdered  milk & glucose but as she couldn’t afford it on her own after the first week, she tried  goats milk + porridge to no avail  The baby died 2 weeks later after this photo was taken

Traditional healer, BiMwanahija, carefully examines 1 month old, Mohammed Salum, who presented with malnutrition as he wasn’t able to ingest breast milk. The hospital did not understand the reasons he couldn’t feed so just sent him home. They did give the mother powdered milk & glucose but as she couldn’t afford it on her own after the first week, she tried goats milk + porridge to no avail The baby died 2 weeks later after this photo was taken

TANZANIAHEALTH/
TANZANIAHEALTH/

Khadija Joka Haji, age 78, the aunt of traditional healer, BiMwanahija in the sitting room of the home. She moved into BiMwanahijs’s house 4 months ago, as she was having health problems. Now she gets traditional medicine, balanced meals and exercise which helps with the small ailments that are beginning to plague her

 A small television is tuned to a Hindi soap opera at  Hidaya Rayabu, 23, aunts home, where she has moved with her newborn daughter, a day after giving birth. It is normal  in Zanzibari culture for a new mother  + infant to spend the first 30 day after birth living with a female relative.

A small television is tuned to a Hindi soap opera at Hidaya Rayabu, 23, aunts home, where she has moved with her newborn daughter, a day after giving birth. It is normal in Zanzibari culture for a new mother + infant to spend the first 30 day after birth living with a female relative.

 Worn pages of the Quran used in bestowing blessings by traditional healer, Mrisho ,in Jambiani village

Worn pages of the Quran used in bestowing blessings by traditional healer, Mrisho ,in Jambiani village

 Women recite Quranic duas

Women recite Quranic duas

TANZANIAHEALTH/
TANZANIAHEALTH/

Sheiks stand over women at the Shifaa Herbalist Clinic who hope to be healed of mental, spiritual or physical illness through recitation of the Quran

 A Shieks pours water on the neck of a woman. Sometimes cold water while chanting verses from the Quran are enough to dislodge the djinn (spirt)

A Shieks pours water on the neck of a woman. Sometimes cold water while chanting verses from the Quran are enough to dislodge the djinn (spirt)

TANZANIAHEALTH/
TANZANIAHEALTH/

A Sheik at the Shifaa Herbal Clinic holds down a women who is in the process of being dispossessed by a djiin (spirit) that has allegedly been causing her to steal small items. As the djinn is leaving her body she had convulsions and tried to fight the Sheiks, so is being held down to prevent this while other women pray around her

TANZANIAHEALTH/
TANZANIAHEALTH/

After a Saturday session of religious recitations, two women converse. The Shifaa Herbal Clinic becomes a sort of meeting place for the women, just like a community center as women on Zanzibar generally pray at home instead of the Mosque

TANZANIAHEALTH/
TANZANIAHEALTH/

Women being blessed by Sheik Salum, the founder of Shifaa Herbal Clinic as others wait their turn

TANZANIAHEALTH/
TANZANIAHEALTH/

A woman “possessed” by a dark djinn (spirit) being led out of the main recitation room by Sheik Mohammed. The sound of the Quran being spoken angers the djinn who in turn make the women violent sometimes

TANZANIAHEALTH/
TANZANIAHEALTH/

Women come to the Shifaa Herbalist Clinic in Zanzibar City, Tanzania to be healed of physical & mental illness caused by djinn (spirits), through recitation of the Quran

TANZANIAHEALTH/
TANZANIAHEALTH/

Transistor radio with an electric line strung through a window. Most homes in the smaller villages don’t have televisions or modern electronics

Malady writeup.jpg
 A rooster walks on top of roots used in traditional healing at BiMwanahija’s clinic
Woo_Mganga_1.JPG
 Two women  who carry dark djinn (spirits) have longer consultations with Sheik Abdul Rahman & Sheik Nsoor. In order to push the djinni out, the Sheiks physically hold the women and speak angrily to the djinn inside of them. It is believed that the Sheiks have power bestowed on them by Allah, that gives them special strength that the djinn are afraid of.
 Handwritten patient files at Kidongo Chekundu Hospital, Zanzibar’s only psychiatric ward. Most families believe that mental illness is caused by djinn (spirit) possession, so rarely bring patients to the hospital until the situation is dire.
 Women face the wall  to better focus on recitation of dua or prayers at the Shifaa Herbalist Clinic. They came to be to be healed of spiritual and phsyical  illness believed to be caused by djinn (spirits), through the Quran.
 Rooftops of  homes in Fuoni village just outside of Zanzibar City, Tanzania
 A woman in the process of being cleansed of a djinn possession (supernatural being that forces people to do it’s will) that is believed to be caused her stomach pains at the Shifaa Herbalist Clinic . The act of the dispossession often leads to screaming, running, and writhing etc as the words from the Quran are like fire to the spirit
 A  gurney  is rushed across the yard at Mnazi Mmoja public hospital.   At hospitals in Zanzibar everything— including daily meals, washing and transporting to different departments— must be supplied by a patients family and friends  versus hospital staff
 A sign giving directions at the Mnazi Mmoja Hospital the largest on the island .
 Fatma Hamad, holds her 2 yr old daughter  Khadija, while examining the child’s x-rays at Mnazi Mmoja government hospital. A month prior the child’s leg became paralyzed after a high fever and convulsions. The hospital recommended an x-ray to check for infection but  ignored any testing for possible nerve damage. Finding nor relief at hospital, Mrs. Hamad  went to a traditional healer who told her the the cause of the paralysis was djinn (spirit) possession.
 Two of the three beds at the maternity ward in Makunduchi Hospital, the third largest government facility on the island
 New mother, Hidaya Rayabu, 23 (4th from left), sits in the waiting room of Jang’ombe clinic. Her 5 day old daughter, Jamillah , will receive the polio vaccine today, but she must wait for it to warm up as it needs to be administered at room temperature. Vaccines are given free to all children until the age of 2 years old
 A mother and her children sit in a field of a farm near Mkokotoni, village .
 Apprentice healer, BiSalama, cuts roots with a machete at BiMwanhija’s clinic. The roots will be doled out to patients  to make teas  to aid in healing
 Herbs lay on the floor of a  traditional healers clinic, used to help prevent miscarriage and diarrhea.
 Patients queue outside the waiting room of traditional healer, BiMwanhija’s clinic. She is considered one of the best on the island and deals mainly with pregnant mothers, children & infertility.
 Traditional healer, BiMwanahija, massages infant, Abduli Juma, age 3 months. His mom, Semeni, brought him in because he is very lethargic and can’t hold his own head up. Bimwanahija believes that the baby has a djinn (spirit) possession, though hospital doctors say he has an incurable brain issue .
 A few weeks after his birth, infant Ahee Bom’s  skin began to darken and peel off in strips. His mother first brought him to the public hospital where they told her the baby’s skin would hopefully heal on its own. A month later, as the condition worsened, she took him to the  traditional healer BiMwanahija,, pictured here.
TANZANIAHEALTH/
TANZANIAHEALTH/
 1 year old Nurdiin, born with Down Syndrome sits on the couch of his home. He is the youngest child of his 43 year old mother ,Salha Abdallah who has 6 other children. She goes to BiMwanahija’s traditional healing clinic twice weekly to get the baby massages that she believes help invigorate him .
 Money drawer where payment for services rendered at traditional healer, Bimwanahija’s clinic. She charges based on a sliding scale
 An infant is stretched by traditional healer, BiMwanhija at her clinic, which is meant to promote blood circulation
 Medicine at traditional healer, BiMwanhija’s clinic usually takes the form of roots or leaves to be boiled into a tea. They are put directly into a patients purses for transport
 Eight month old, Muhammad Ali with his mother Nadra in the living room of their home. Muhammad suffers from pain resulting from an extreme incarcerated hernia (distended belly button). His mother brought him to a traditional healer to get herbs to try alleviate some of the discomfort, which she says is helping. The hospital diagnosis was surgery , but Mrs. Ali is concerned he will die there if he undergoes the recommended procedure
 Apprentice traditional healer, BiSalama separates small portions of medicinal leaves to be given to patients at BiMwanahija’s clinic
 Traditional healer, BiMwanahija, massages pregnant patient, Maryam Juma, 29. This is Maryam’s 5th pregnancy though she has no surviving children (3 miscarriages and 1 was stillborn). Both she and the healer believe the reason for all the failed attempts is because  a troublesome djinn (spirit) has attacked each child in utero.
 Semeni Juma holds her infant son, Abduli, age 3 months in her lap at the waiting room of traditional healer, BiMwanahija. The mother brought him in because he is very lethargic and can’t hold his own head up. BiMwanahija believes that the baby has a djinn (spirit) possession, though hospital doctors say he has an incurable brain issue
 Traditional healer, BiMwanahija, carefully examines 1 month old, Mohammed Salum, who presented with malnutrition as he wasn’t able to  ingest breast milk. The hospital did not  understand the reasons he couldn’t feed so just sent him home. They did give the mother powdered  milk & glucose but as she couldn’t afford it on her own after the first week, she tried  goats milk + porridge to no avail  The baby died 2 weeks later after this photo was taken
TANZANIAHEALTH/
 A small television is tuned to a Hindi soap opera at  Hidaya Rayabu, 23, aunts home, where she has moved with her newborn daughter, a day after giving birth. It is normal  in Zanzibari culture for a new mother  + infant to spend the first 30 day after birth living with a female relative.
 Worn pages of the Quran used in bestowing blessings by traditional healer, Mrisho ,in Jambiani village
 Women recite Quranic duas
TANZANIAHEALTH/
 A Shieks pours water on the neck of a woman. Sometimes cold water while chanting verses from the Quran are enough to dislodge the djinn (spirt)
TANZANIAHEALTH/
TANZANIAHEALTH/
TANZANIAHEALTH/
TANZANIAHEALTH/
TANZANIAHEALTH/
TANZANIAHEALTH/

A rooster walks on top of roots used in traditional healing at BiMwanahija’s clinic

Two women who carry dark djinn (spirits) have longer consultations with Sheik Abdul Rahman & Sheik Nsoor. In order to push the djinni out, the Sheiks physically hold the women and speak angrily to the djinn inside of them. It is believed that the Sheiks have power bestowed on them by Allah, that gives them special strength that the djinn are afraid of.

Handwritten patient files at Kidongo Chekundu Hospital, Zanzibar’s only psychiatric ward. Most families believe that mental illness is caused by djinn (spirit) possession, so rarely bring patients to the hospital until the situation is dire.

Women face the wall to better focus on recitation of dua or prayers at the Shifaa Herbalist Clinic. They came to be to be healed of spiritual and phsyical illness believed to be caused by djinn (spirits), through the Quran.

Rooftops of homes in Fuoni village just outside of Zanzibar City, Tanzania

A woman in the process of being cleansed of a djinn possession (supernatural being that forces people to do it’s will) that is believed to be caused her stomach pains at the Shifaa Herbalist Clinic . The act of the dispossession often leads to screaming, running, and writhing etc as the words from the Quran are like fire to the spirit

A gurney is rushed across the yard at Mnazi Mmoja public hospital.

At hospitals in Zanzibar everything— including daily meals, washing and transporting to different departments— must be supplied by a patients family and friends versus hospital staff

A sign giving directions at the Mnazi Mmoja Hospital the largest on the island .

Fatma Hamad, holds her 2 yr old daughter Khadija, while examining the child’s x-rays at Mnazi Mmoja government hospital. A month prior the child’s leg became paralyzed after a high fever and convulsions. The hospital recommended an x-ray to check for infection but ignored any testing for possible nerve damage. Finding nor relief at hospital, Mrs. Hamad went to a traditional healer who told her the the cause of the paralysis was djinn (spirit) possession.

Two of the three beds at the maternity ward in Makunduchi Hospital, the third largest government facility on the island

New mother, Hidaya Rayabu, 23 (4th from left), sits in the waiting room of Jang’ombe clinic. Her 5 day old daughter, Jamillah , will receive the polio vaccine today, but she must wait for it to warm up as it needs to be administered at room temperature. Vaccines are given free to all children until the age of 2 years old

A mother and her children sit in a field of a farm near Mkokotoni, village .

Apprentice healer, BiSalama, cuts roots with a machete at BiMwanhija’s clinic. The roots will be doled out to patients to make teas to aid in healing

Herbs lay on the floor of a traditional healers clinic, used to help prevent miscarriage and diarrhea.

Patients queue outside the waiting room of traditional healer, BiMwanhija’s clinic. She is considered one of the best on the island and deals mainly with pregnant mothers, children & infertility.

Traditional healer, BiMwanahija, massages infant, Abduli Juma, age 3 months. His mom, Semeni, brought him in because he is very lethargic and can’t hold his own head up. Bimwanahija believes that the baby has a djinn (spirit) possession, though hospital doctors say he has an incurable brain issue .

A few weeks after his birth, infant Ahee Bom’s skin began to darken and peel off in strips. His mother first brought him to the public hospital where they told her the baby’s skin would hopefully heal on its own. A month later, as the condition worsened, she took him to the traditional healer BiMwanahija,, pictured here.

TANZANIAHEALTH/

Infant, Ahee Bom, lays on the bed he shares with his parents & 2 siblings in their home. After birth, his skin began to significantly darken and peel off in large strips. The traditional healer, BiMwanahija, bathed him with 2 scrubs made from medicinal leaves. Photographed here a few weeks after the process .

TANZANIAHEALTH/

Salha Abdallah , 43 yrs old, prepares an afternoon snack of bread in her kitchen while her son ,Ali, looks on. She has 7 children in total and her youngest , 1 year old Nurdiin, was born with Down Syndrome. She goes to BiMwanahija’s traditional healing clinic weekly to get the child massages that she believes invigorate him

1 year old Nurdiin, born with Down Syndrome sits on the couch of his home. He is the youngest child of his 43 year old mother ,Salha Abdallah who has 6 other children. She goes to BiMwanahija’s traditional healing clinic twice weekly to get the baby massages that she believes help invigorate him .

Money drawer where payment for services rendered at traditional healer, Bimwanahija’s clinic. She charges based on a sliding scale

An infant is stretched by traditional healer, BiMwanhija at her clinic, which is meant to promote blood circulation

Medicine at traditional healer, BiMwanhija’s clinic usually takes the form of roots or leaves to be boiled into a tea. They are put directly into a patients purses for transport

Eight month old, Muhammad Ali with his mother Nadra in the living room of their home. Muhammad suffers from pain resulting from an extreme incarcerated hernia (distended belly button). His mother brought him to a traditional healer to get herbs to try alleviate some of the discomfort, which she says is helping. The hospital diagnosis was surgery , but Mrs. Ali is concerned he will die there if he undergoes the recommended procedure

Apprentice traditional healer, BiSalama separates small portions of medicinal leaves to be given to patients at BiMwanahija’s clinic

Traditional healer, BiMwanahija, massages pregnant patient, Maryam Juma, 29. This is Maryam’s 5th pregnancy though she has no surviving children (3 miscarriages and 1 was stillborn). Both she and the healer believe the reason for all the failed attempts is because a troublesome djinn (spirit) has attacked each child in utero.

Semeni Juma holds her infant son, Abduli, age 3 months in her lap at the waiting room of traditional healer, BiMwanahija. The mother brought him in because he is very lethargic and can’t hold his own head up. BiMwanahija believes that the baby has a djinn (spirit) possession, though hospital doctors say he has an incurable brain issue

Traditional healer, BiMwanahija, carefully examines 1 month old, Mohammed Salum, who presented with malnutrition as he wasn’t able to ingest breast milk. The hospital did not understand the reasons he couldn’t feed so just sent him home. They did give the mother powdered milk & glucose but as she couldn’t afford it on her own after the first week, she tried goats milk + porridge to no avail The baby died 2 weeks later after this photo was taken

TANZANIAHEALTH/

Khadija Joka Haji, age 78, the aunt of traditional healer, BiMwanahija in the sitting room of the home. She moved into BiMwanahijs’s house 4 months ago, as she was having health problems. Now she gets traditional medicine, balanced meals and exercise which helps with the small ailments that are beginning to plague her

A small television is tuned to a Hindi soap opera at Hidaya Rayabu, 23, aunts home, where she has moved with her newborn daughter, a day after giving birth. It is normal in Zanzibari culture for a new mother + infant to spend the first 30 day after birth living with a female relative.

Worn pages of the Quran used in bestowing blessings by traditional healer, Mrisho ,in Jambiani village

Women recite Quranic duas

TANZANIAHEALTH/

Sheiks stand over women at the Shifaa Herbalist Clinic who hope to be healed of mental, spiritual or physical illness through recitation of the Quran

A Shieks pours water on the neck of a woman. Sometimes cold water while chanting verses from the Quran are enough to dislodge the djinn (spirt)

TANZANIAHEALTH/

A Sheik at the Shifaa Herbal Clinic holds down a women who is in the process of being dispossessed by a djiin (spirit) that has allegedly been causing her to steal small items. As the djinn is leaving her body she had convulsions and tried to fight the Sheiks, so is being held down to prevent this while other women pray around her

TANZANIAHEALTH/

After a Saturday session of religious recitations, two women converse. The Shifaa Herbal Clinic becomes a sort of meeting place for the women, just like a community center as women on Zanzibar generally pray at home instead of the Mosque

TANZANIAHEALTH/

Women being blessed by Sheik Salum, the founder of Shifaa Herbal Clinic as others wait their turn

TANZANIAHEALTH/

A woman “possessed” by a dark djinn (spirit) being led out of the main recitation room by Sheik Mohammed. The sound of the Quran being spoken angers the djinn who in turn make the women violent sometimes

TANZANIAHEALTH/

Women come to the Shifaa Herbalist Clinic in Zanzibar City, Tanzania to be healed of physical & mental illness caused by djinn (spirits), through recitation of the Quran

TANZANIAHEALTH/

Transistor radio with an electric line strung through a window. Most homes in the smaller villages don’t have televisions or modern electronics

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